sCAN project – Analytical Papers

As a part of our project sCAN, together with our NGO partners from EU, Human Rights House Zagreb produced a couple of analytical papers on different topics concerning the noticed trends of hate speech on social media and internet.

  1. A Hate Ontology for better understanding of key definitions

With this publication, the sCAN project partners, bring their contribution to the further expansion of the body of knowledge and literature on online hate speech, to enable researchers, cyber activists, and the civil society representatives to better recognise and contrast the phenomenon of cyber hate.

Download the full text here in English.

  • Antigypsyism on the internet

Sinti and Romani people have been living in Europe for more than six centuries. The history of antigypsyist rhetoric, discrimination and political persecution is just as long. Even though many countries have by now recognized Sinti and Roma as a national minority, intolerance remains and deeply embedded stereotypes still have a severe impact on the lives and opportunities of persons affected by antigypsyism. Today most antigypsyist rhetoric takes place online. In the analysed countries, criminalisation, welfare chauvinism and de-humanisation are the most common narratives. They are spread on social media, but also in (online) media outlets and the comment sections of articles and videos. Frequent tools used to spread antigypsyism are fake news reports and decontextualized images and videos.

Read the full report in English by clicking here.

  • Beyond the “Big Three” – alternative platforms for online hate speech

As the major social networks are increasingly cracking down on hate speech, right-wing extremists migrate to alternative platforms. Which platforms those are, analysed together with partner organisations in the project sCAN.

Some of those alternative platforms, like or, have acquired a broad international audience and are considered ‘safe havens’ by far-right or right-wing extremist activists, where they can exchange their views without fear of interference or sanctions.

You can read the full analytical paper in English, German and French.

  • Hotspots of hate – the online responsibility of public figures

This analytical paper produced by the sCAN partnership focuses on hotspots online: posts that might not be hateful themselves, but often trigger a series of hateful comments and tend to originate from politicians, influencers or public figures. These posts carry extra weight as they reach a wider audience than posts shared by everyday individuals. They are also harder to tackle as their trigger effect is difficult to grapple with for both social media companies and CSOs fighting hate speech online.

To read our analysis about such cases, click here to download the full analytical paper in English and German translation is available here.

The sCAN project is funded by the European Commission Directorate – General for Justice and Consumers, within the framework of the Rights, Equality and Citizenship (REC) Programme of the European Union.